Friday, January 30, 2009


In Apatani, six verbs are used as ‘to go’ verbs to describe movement of man and animal from one location to the another. They are shown in the table below:
Verb roots
English equivalent
to go
School innge. [Go to school.]
1. to come
Ura aato. [Come inside.]
2. to go in
Ura aange. [Go inside.]
1. to come out
Ago linto. [Come outside.]
2. to go out
Ago linnge. [Go outside.]
1. to come across
Si dalyi bowto. [Come this side.]
2. to go across
Into dalyi bownge. [Go that side (across river, road etc.]
1. to come up
Hao chato. [Come up.]
2. to go up.
Hao change. [Go up (upstair, uphill etc.).]
1. to come down
Akang ho toto. [Come down.]
2. to go down
Akang ho tonge. [Go down (downstair, downhill etc.).]
At a time, use of the right ‘to go’ verb in a right place can be difficult for a learner. The use of each verb is specific depending on the ground level, the direction or the barrier that separates the two locations. Following examples will give some idea of their usages:
[A] Movement in and out of Ziro
1. Tara Itanagar tone. [Tara went to Itanagar.]
Reason: Itanagar is at lower altitude than that of Ziro hence the use of ‘to’
2. Tara Ziro chane. [Tara went to ziro (from Itanagar).]
Reason: Ziro is at higher altitude than that of Itanagar, hence the use of ‘cha’
3. Yalu Daporijo chakin do. [Yalu will go to Daporijo.]
Reason: Daporijo is located northward from Ziro, hence the use of ‘cha’
4. Ngo Guwahati inchi. [I will go to Guwahati (from Ziro)]
Reason: Learner can safely ignore direction or altitude for distant place and use ‘in’ (otherwise ‘to’ or ‘aa’ can also be used in this case)
5. Ngo Ziro aachi. [I will go to Ziro (from Guwahati).]
Reason: Ziro is in interior from Guwahati and it is like going inside, hence ‘aa’ (cha can also be used- based on altitude factor.)
[B] Movement within Ziro
1. From Hapoli market area to Hilltop Colony and vice versa e.g, Anku Hilltop bowne. [Anku went to Hilltop.]
Reason: There is a narrow strip of low lying area between Hapoli market and Hilltop which one has to cross while going to Hilltop, hence use of ‘bow’
2. From Hapoli to Siiro e.g, Tatung Siiro tokin do. [Tatung will go to [Siiro.]
Reason: Siiro is at lower altitude, so use of ‘to’
3. From Hapoli market area to Higher Secondary School, Salang or Abulya e.g, Tatung Abulya linne. [Tatung went to Abulya.]
Reason: Abulya is at periphery of Hapoli and it is like going outside through the main road that go out from market area, so use of ‘lin’
4. From Higher Secondary School to Hapoli market e.g, Ngo market aachi. [I will go to market.]
Reason: To go to Hapoli market from Higher Secondary School or Abulya is like going inside the market through entrance, so use of ‘aa’
5. From Hapoli to Hong e.g, Ngo biilyo Hong bowte he.[I have been to Hong yesterday.]
Reason: Hong village lies east of Hapoli and one goes to Hong through a diversion road from the main road, across a stream and a narrow strip of paddy fields. Hence the use of ‘bow’
6. From Hari to Mudang Tage, Hija , Old Ziro etc. e.g, Mo ngiimi Mudang Tage bowsa hiine. [He asked me to go along with him to Mudang Tage.]
Reason: Going to Mudang Tage from Hari means going breadth wise of the valley, across the main highway and Kiile stream that divide the Ziro valley into Eastern and western zone. Hence the use of ‘bow’
7. From Biila to Mudang Tage e.g, Mo Mudang Tage tone do. [He/ She would go to Mudang Tage.]
Reason: Going from Biila to Mudang Tage amount to crossing main highway and the stream like that from Hari, but, here going down along the main highway southward become more apparent. Hence the use of ‘to’
[C] Movement within New Itanagar:
a) From Bank Tinali to Ganga e.g,
1. Ngo Ganga aachi. [I will go to Ganga.]
2. No Ganga aange. [You go to Ganga.]
3. No Ganga aato. [You come to Ganga.]
4. Ngo Ganga aato. [I went to Ganga.]
5. Tamo Ganga aane. [Tamo went to Ganga.]
b) From Ganga to Bank Tinali e.g,
1. Ngo Bank Tinali linchi. [I will go to Bank Tinali.]
2. No Bank Tinali linnge. [You go to Bank Tinali.]
3. No Bank Tinali linto. [You come to Bank Tinali.]
4. Mo Bank Tinali linne. [He/ She went to Bank Tinali.]
c) From Bank Tinali to Mowb-II and vice versa e.g,
1. Ngo Mowb-II bowkin do. [I shall go to Mowb-II.]
2. Ngo Bank Tinali bowto do. [I would go to Bank Tinali (from Mowb-II)]
d) From Bank Tinali to C-Sector market e.g, Ngiinyi C-Sector market cha’sa. [Let’s go C-sector market.]
e) From C-Sector market to Bank Tinali e.g, Ngunu Bank Tinali tosa. [Let’s go to Bank Tinali.]
f) From C-Sector market to Mowb-II e.g, Chobin Mowb-II bowpa miido. [Chobin is about to go to Mowb-II.]
g) From Bank Tinali to Zero Point or B-Sector e.g, Ngo Zero Point ho linpa hendo. [I am thinking of going to Zero Point.]
h) From B-Sector to Bank Tinali e.g, Ngo Bank Tinali aachi / tochi. [I will go toBank Tinali.]
[D] Movement within or outside Itanagar
1. From Naharlagun to New Itanagar e.g, Rinyo New Itanagar chachi hiine. [Rinyo said she will go to New Itanagar.]
2. From New Itanagar to Naharlagun e.g, Tama, Tapu mi Naharlagun toba siisa hiine. [Tama asked Tapu to go to Naharlagun together.]
3. From Naharlagun to Banderdewa e.g, Mo Banderdewa linne. [He/ She went to Banderdewa.]
4. From Banderdewa to Naharlagun or New itanagar e.g, Ngiinyi New Itanagar aachi. [We (two of us) will go to New Itanagar.]
5. From Itanagar to Bomdila, Pasighat, Seppa etc. e.g, Ngo Pasighat aakin do. [I shall go to Pasighat.]
6. From Itanagar to Delhi, Mumbai, Ranchi etc. Ngunu Delhi aaba siikin do. [We (all of us) shall go to Delhi together.]

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