Words for ‘here’ and ‘there’ in Apatani
[near the speaker]
[away from both the speaker and addressee]
[away from the speaker but near the addressee]
[far away from both the speaker and the addressee]
inso / inka so
ho / hiika ho
into so / into ho
II*. si / siika si
insi / inka si
hii / hiika hii
Case I: so, sika so, inso, inka so, ho, hiika ho and into so / into ho tell where an action happened or about to happen e.g,
1. Command: So a’to. [Come here.]
2. Past event: Inso Ato ka ude hii done. [The house of Grand father was located there (don’t exist now)]; Hiika ho ngo ngiika cell phone mi ba’pah siito. [I lost my cell phone there (over there by your side).]
3. Future event: Into so arda ngunu bo’sa. [Let’s go there tomorrow.]
Case II: si, siika si, insi, inka si, hii, hiika hii and intosi tell where someone or something is in state of doing something (at time of speaking or writing) e.g,
2. Lopa hii hiika hii do. [The stick is lying there.]
3. Aki hii into si du. [The dog is sitting there.]
4. Yam insi a’la do. [Yam is coming there.]
5. Into si piita ako go’do. [A bird is flying there.]
*[si, siika si, insi, inka si, hii, hiika hii and intosi are also used as demonstrative pronouns depending on their usages (see Demonstrative Words)]
1. si, siika si, insi, inka si, hii, hiika hii and intosi are always used with present participle.
2. The verbs da, do and du (as in examples 1 to 3 above) are special case of present participles (do not require markers to form one as in a’la do).
3. Lopa hii literally means ‘stick in question’; thus, hii when followed a noun (when not used as hiika lopa hii) behaves as definite article ‘the’ in English (yet to be verified if it applies in all condition).