Tuesday, November 9, 2010

Naming of mithuns

Naming of mithuns in Apatani are based on the patterns of colours on their skin. Male and female with similar pattern of colours may have different names. Male names generally start with ‘ta’ as starting syllable and that of female with ‘ya’ as starting syllable. However, there are some patterns of colour for which the bearer have a name irrespective their gender. Following are the illustrations of some common names:

Wednesday, October 6, 2010

Letters and Spelling System in Apatani

English alphabet is being employed to write Apatani for two obvious reasons:
  • It is known well to all literate Apatanis; and
  • It is quite convenient, as well, to write Apatani with slight customization of phonological rules of English.

For the purpose of writing Apatani with English alphabets, following points have been considered and used in this blog:

  • All the consonants, that is, b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y and z, sound as in English.
  • Combinations of consonants such as ch, kh, ng and double consonants (nn, tt etc.) are used specifically as in check, Sikh, ring, sinner and attend respectively
  • Vowels are a, e, i, o, u – as in English, plus two additional vowels e and ii which are unique to Apatani

  • Each vowel in Apatani has a unique sound-
‘a’ as in America
‘e’ as in set
**‘e’ as in tader /tad...r/ (means intestinal worm in Apatani), taker (star)
‘i’ as in sit, India etc
‘o’ as in pot, old etc
‘u’ as in bush
‘ii’ as in siibin /s…bin/ (means goat in Apatani)
**[e may be replaced by e for convenience of writing and typing and its use in words are understood from context.]

  • Apatani being a tone language, all the speech sounds mentioned above except e have variant forms depending on length, pitch and aspiration of the vowel. These variant forms are represented in words with certain combination of letters which are nearest to the sound represented in English words with similar combinations of letters.

  • Representation of speech sounds on basis of length, pitch and aspiration:
Variants of vowel sound a:
a  /as in Papa, ask/ e.g, apu (flower), owpa (about to cut work with spade), ane (mother)
aa  /as in aag (fire), raat (night) in hindi/ e.g, aane (came), owpaa (remove by cutting with spade)
ah  /as in ah!/ e.g, miinah (too busy in doing something), owpah (chance of working with spade/ chance to find something while working with spade)

.... Read more

Friday, September 3, 2010

Hapoli Daka Alyie Atan

[Click here for English translation of the post]

1. Traffic police ka whistle saniin mi tapalala ngo cycle domoto. Mo ngiimi stand daka board mi nyakinne. Hiika board ho ‘PIGS FIRST, PLEASE!’ (Alyi mi inppyokiineto hiila ketogiine.)

Kahii-kakhe biihankiile, alyie anii dore la alyie atu dorhinhe, lembo ho yanu-yanu gubowla done. Yapa kone, scooter domobiitola dola, ngiimi kagebiidola lune, “Ngunu ka traffic police si miidijako miido.”

2. Ngo school inpa inlyi ho, alyie atu tonge nallah ho guladopa kapato. “Sir, inka alyie atan mi food-poison hoikenmasii ha?” Ngo ngunuka health-hygiene teacher mi takato.

“Ma,” moh lune. “Siika alyie atan si ano hendi-nyadu. Mohlu ayamanii chemical atan mi la kacho-tanii atan mi diiliigiilalala, miyu atan mi diikenendupa hiila, alyo ho giikunkiinedu.”

3. Gandhi Market daka haman-sanii pyuko ho, ngo alyie anii dorngohe bazar miitela dopa kapato. Mohlu kone heter basket biimane. “Inka atan basket biimapa bazar miitepayu ha?” Ngo ngiika ajin mi takato.

“Nokoda piidima ke!” Ngiika ajin hii lune. “No chinma po mohluka ere hii iche heter potelama?”

4. Ane alyie lyikanuhe ja balu miiniipa ajobiine. “Miyu mi ya ajomapa, alyie atan mi niimpa ajobiidu?” Ngo Ane mi takato.

“No chinmapa ke,” Ane lune. “Balu so yalang acho-acho do. Ngunu dipe lo owalaama. Alyie atan ka nyago hii ano alerdo. Mohlu kiidi mi bulldozer hiilyan durlaado.”

5. Aba, alyie lyinii atu kone riibiila giiri ho atiibiine. Ane, alyie mi ka giiri ho ka atiiniimi hennga-henkhala done. “Silo-biilyo, siika modern anyan ho, whu ja alyie mi giiri ho atiidu?” Ane, Aba mi lubiila done. “Hapoli ho ka animal-right activist atan ka nyimaniin niipa luck ayado. Hiilamakoda no achu-amyo mi ka miiha-miikha ko hopa, siisi patu ho dudo.”

Aba knii miichi! Mo chindo Ane mi lurii la lunu-luna-lupakendo hiila. Aro roye, Aba ngiinyi alyie mi giiri hokii pyakobitoku. Aba ngiimi howang ho pika biidola lune, “Silo-biilyo, Hapoli ho, alyie atan ka alo ke lodokunii.”

Monday, July 12, 2010

Preposition in Apatani

Preposition is a word or group of words that relates its object to another word in the sentence. [As defined in J.E Warner�s Business English for Carrier].

In Tanii agun, unlike in English, preposition is used after noun or pronoun (object).

List of prepositions with example:

ho : on, at, in, to e.g., Table ho kitab do. [Book is on the table]; Ngo siisi Hapoli ho da. [I am now at Hapoli]; Rajesh, Simla ho dudu. [Rajesh lives in Simla.]. Ama, Itanagar ho tone/ Ama, Itanagar tone. [Ama went to Itanagar.]

ura ho : inside e.g., Bakos ura ho tarii done./ Tarii hii bakos ura ho done. [The cloth is inside the box]

ago ho : outside e.g., Ude ago ho habun do. [It is cool outside the house]

liipa ho : in between e.g., Hong, Bulla nyika liipa ho Hari lemba do. [Hari village is in between Hong and Bulla.]

hata ho/hii : in front of e.g., Nobin, Tamo hata hii/ho da. [Nobin stands in front of Tamo.]; No Nobin hata ho dato [You stand in front of Nobin.]

kiilin ho : behind e.g., Tallo, Tapa kiilin ho aado.[Tallo is coming behind Tapa.]

hawo ho : above/ up in e.g., Putu hawo ho ude kone do. [There is a house up in the hill]

ikko ho : beneath/ under e.g., Sanii ikko ho dumosa. [Let�s take rest under the tree.]

akkan ho : below

agin ho/pa : with e.g., Ngo Tamer agin pa aadu. /Ngo Tamer agin ho aato (I came with Tamer]

pa : for, about e.g., (Ngo)Siika tarii mi Anya pa riibii-talyi. [I will buy and take this shirt for Anya]: (Ngo)Siika tarii mi Anya pa riichi. [I will buy this shirt for Anya]; Ngiika aalyi ho 3:30 pa miine. [When I came it was about 3:30]

hopa : by, through e.g., Lembo hopa aato [Come by road]

hokii : from e.g., Ngo lemba hokii tolyi. [I come (down) from village]

mi : to/ at e.g., Akki mi yalan kooto. [throw stone at the dog]; Simi Kobin mi bito. [give it to Kobin]

Thursday, May 13, 2010

Words that confuse

aaba              to come together

aba                father

abaa              put load on something

aban              elders(male)

abaan            burning pain

aabi               come on other behalf

aabie             convenient way or means of coming

abbi               movement

abi                 pants/ skirt

abie               sufficient

abu                many/ numerous/ lot

aboo             cylindrical

aachi             will come

achi               sister in law

achchi           1. pain, 2. very much

aado              has come/ coming

adow             far/ distant

aadu              come

adu                make sound

addu              hurt one’s feet by stepping on something, feel something under feet

aajo               benefit of coming

ajo                 pay for work or services

ajjo                carefully and slowly, fond

ajoo              week

ajju                apearance (of people)

aalyi              coming

alyi                air, wind

alyee             arrow

alyie              pig

alo                 1. day, 2. to drop

alow              bone

allo                salt

aako             place of coming

akko             short or small height

ako               one

aama            do not come

ama              mother

amma           to infect or rub something off to/from something

aami             cat

ami               elder sister

amie             eye

ammi            tail

aane             came

ane               mother

aanii             one who come

anii               mother

aniih             hurry, haste

aniiw            leaf

aapo            1. come out in front, 2. did (someone)come? e.g, Moh aapo? [did he come?]

appo            body

aari              come in turn

ari                cost/ price of something

arie              to string together (as in necklace of beads)

arri               to lay foundation of building

aato             came

ato               grand father/ father in law

atto              ones own, self

aya              good, fair, nice, lovely

ayaa            flesh

babo           assist in carrying load

babbo         pole erected during myoko

baaro         large (flat object)

baro           brother

bido           giving, give

biedo         flowing, flow

bo              to move across, e.g., bone [moved across]

bow           to pull, e.g., bowne [pulled]

bu              to pull out weeds etc.

boo           to burst

cha            to go up

chaa          to split something with knife/sword

che            to argue e.g., chene [argued]

chay          1. to cut (as with scissor) e.g., chayne [cut]; 2. to be pressed from two sides, sandwitch

                  e.g., chayne [pressed something from two sides.]; achay [tight]

chi            to bite

chie          motion in one direction in air or water (as in swimming or moving spear)

chih          extinct

chu          to spit

choo        move infront or direction of head (when something is lying)

da            to stand

daa          to step

du            to sit

doo          v. offer to sell something e.g., doola-do [making enquiry if someone is willing to buy something]

doo          n. collection of rice grains ready for husking

ene           shot

enne         simply

heene        beaten with stick

hine           felt with hand

hinne         pinched

hoi             to happen (borrowed word from Assamese)

hoyee        feeling free from burden or hardship

ji                melt

jih              black

jo              to carry

jow           to cut

ku             ask, e.g., kune [asked]

koo           throw, e.g., koone [threw]

kapyo       good looking, beautiful

kapyow    look/see first/earlier

kappyow  first

lusa           let (us) speak

loosa        1. different groups or herds; 2. one set each (for two or more)

mene        searched

menne      killed

monne      chased

mowne     moved head sidewise

moh ne     was him

nenne       smelled

neneh         bruising

nene       scrubed or hurt due to friction

pa            to cut

paa          to find other’s lost thing

paro        fowl
parow     widening something by cutting

pene        shouted (slogan or war cry)

penne      1. built; 2. transferred properties etc. to legal heir

pen-nehe  how many (house, hut or building)

pi             to cut (by sawing action)

pee          to bark (as of dog)

ri               to throw

rie             to stitch

rii              to buy

riiw           to perch (as of birds)

sii             1. to die; 2. cow

siiw          to scratch

sone         1. played; 2. cracked joke; 3. to have affair e.g., nyimun sone [have affair with girl]

sonne        to move on pole or rope with help of hand

sone-he     how many (rope, stick, pen, thread etc.)

tango        /ta-ngo/ part of something (music etc.) that has not been listen or heard

tanggo       /tang-go/ thing to drink

tanngo       /tan-ngo/ left over drinks (water, juice etc,)

tangoh        stop listening

tanngoh      stop drinking

ta               to hear, listen

taa             1. to cut (with spade, axe); 2. to bite (as of snake)

tarne          to bend or to break something by bending

taarne        puss

tu              to kick

tuh            to pluck

too            to pick

tooh          to push

Tuesday, May 11, 2010

Sentence Structure in Apatani

Basic sentence patterns in Apatani:

· subject + verb

1. Akki peedo. [dog (is) barking]

2. Ngo luchi. [I shall speak.]

· subject + direct object + verb

1. Ngo lemba chachi (I shall go to village)

2. Ngo lemba chalaa-kendo. (I can go to village)

3. Paat siibin chilo-biine. (Tiger hunted down a goat.)

· subject + direct object + object complement + verb

1. Anku hime mi imi-la-dopa kapa-biine. [Anku found the child asleep.]

· subject + indirect object + direct object + verb

1. Tapu ngiimi pen sonye-he babi. [Tapu brought me two pen.]

· subject + subject complement

1. Yubbey doctor. [Yubbey (is) a doctor.]

2. Lampung hime chikho kone. [Lampung (is) a clever boy.]

· subject + subject complement + verb

1. Lampung hime chikho do. [Lampung is a clever boy.]