Wednesday, March 11, 2009

The Suffixes and Their Meanings - 1

The suffixes (marker word elements or morphemes) used after noun, pronoun, verb, adverb or adjective are consistent with the meaning they denote. Some select suffixes are being taken up for their meanings and usages.

Some select suffixes:

ja: completion of something by an action as indicated by the verb e.g, lu'ja [complete something(what one has to say) by speaking], mii'ja [complete something by doing e.g work], dii'ja [complete eating something] etc.

Usage: Mo apin dii'ja biine. Or Mo, apin mi, dii'ja biine. [He/ She has finished the rice by eating.] Compare:- Mo apin dii'bii ne or Mo, apin mi, dii'bii ne. [He/ She has eaten the rice or meal.] Mo apin dii ne. [He/She ate meal or rice.]

khah: completion of something by an action as indicated by the verb such that nothing is left.

Usage: Aki, paku mi, dii'khah biine. [Dog completely removed the food stuck (leftover) on the plate (by eating).] Aki, paku daka apin mi, dii'khah pabii ne. [Dog has completely finished off the rice on the plate (by eating)]

laa: good at doing, capable, can e.g, hen'laa [ good at heart, sensible], mii'laa [capable to do or ability of doing], ka'laa [able to recognise] etc.

Usage: Mo ano hen'laa du. [He is a very kind hearted person.]. Tamo santu cha'laa kendo. [Tamo can climb tree.]

peh: completion of something that is being set to do as indicated by the verb

Usage: Mii'go mi, mii'peh pato. [Do the work to completion.] Putu cha'niin mi, pulyan cha'peh to. [Climb the mountain till the peak is reached.] In'peh pala, in'nge. [Go till the destination is reached.]

thii ( or tii): completion of something supposed to be completed by an action as indicated by the verb e.g, Ngo, sa (tea) mi, tan'thii lakin ma [I cannot finish the tea (by drinking)]

Similar sounding suffixes , as above, with different meaning:

jah (or za): tear off something due to the action indicated by the verb e.g, sar'jah [tear off something by hand (by tearing)], sii'jah [tear off something by scratching], pa'jah [tear off something by cutting] etc

Usage: Tapu ngiika tarii mi sar'jah biine. [Literally:- Tapu did tear off my shirt (by tearing with hand). Tapu has torn off my shirt (by tearing with hand). ]

jah is derived from the word pajah(adj.) [Having edges that are jagged from injury] e.g, tarii-pajah [torn shirt], nyachu-pajah [cleft lips] etc.

kha: wrong or misplaced action

Usage: Mo, ngiimi, tu'kha biine. [He miskicked me (He kicked but did not hit me)]; Ngo ngiiyi mi la'kha to. [I could not take hold of the fish]; Kano ngiika nam mi ke'kha biine. [Kano wrote my name wrongly. (literally:- Kano did write my name wrongly.)]

la: denote continuity of action e.g, mii'la do [doing], dii'la do [eating], a'la done [was coming etc. Kanya apin dii'la do. [Kanya is eating meal.]

pe: ask, seek as indicated by the verb e.g, bi'pe [give], kuh'to pe [ask for (me)], mii'bo pe [assist (me) to do)

Usage: (Ngiimi,) Niika pen mi, bi'lya pe. [Lend me your pen.]

tii: action done

Usage: No knii mii'tii? [What have you done?]