Three types of moods, as in English, can be identified in Apatani. They are indicative mood, imperative mood and subjunctive mood.
Indicative mood is to make statement or to ask question.
1. Ngo school in’du. [I go to school.]
2. Mo school in’ma. [He/She doesn’t go to school.]
3. No school in’du ha? [Do you go to school?]
Imperative mood is to make command or request.
I. For instant action-
So du’to. [Sit here.]
So du’yo. [Don’t sit here.]
Inka chair ho du’nge/ du’ye. [Sit at that chair.]
Inka chair ho du’yo. [Don’t sit at that chair.]
Hiika chair ho du’to. [Sit in that chair (by your side).]
Hiika chair ho du’yo. [Don’t sit in that chair (by your side).]
School in’nge. [Go to school.]
School in’yo. [Don’t go to school.]
Siika hagya mi miiko to. [Open this door.]
Siika hagya mi miiko yo. [Don’t open this door.]
Inka hagya mi miiko he.[Open that door]
Inka hagya mi miiko yo.[Don’t open that door]
** Note: With inka [that- some distance away from both speaker and adressee] the single syllable verb shall be followed by modifier nge or ye (as in du’nge, du ye), whereas, a verb with two or more syllables shall be followed by he (as in miiko he, diipfyo he etc.).
II. For general instruction for what one ought to do
School kiiran a’to. [Come to school regularly.]
School kiiran a’yo. [Don’t come to school regularly.]
Sunday karmyan mi church in’to. [Go to church every Sunday.]
Sunday karmyna mi church in’yo. [Don’t go to church every Sunday.]
III. For future action-
Arda a’lya. [Come tomorrow.]
Arda a’lya yo. [Don’t come tomorrow.]
Subjunctive mood is to indicate a condition contrary to the fact.
1. Ngo no tiiko da, siilo school in’dii ma. [If I were you, I would not have gone to school.]
2. Tapu a’tii koda, hime atan ga’su kenma ne. [If Tapu had come, children would not have quarrelled.]
3. Lembo aya tiiko da, ngo Itanagar to’tii do. [If road conditions were good, I would have gone (down) to Itanagar.]