Thursday, January 29, 2009


Following are some examples of words or phrases formed from the verb roots ‘a’ (to come), ‘dii’ (to eat) and ‘mii’ (to do). Hope you will familiarized with how verb roots are variously arranged with marker to form words or phrases. (You can replace these verbs by another verbs/ verb roots (from the list of common verbs/ verb roots) and try to relate the meaning of the words or phrases formed with those in the list.)

a v.

to come.


to come together, come along. Usage: Tallo, Tapu nyi a’ba siima ne.[Tallo and Tapu did not come together.].

a’ba gii (-to, lya, yo, ma, do etc)

bring or cause someone to come along. Usage: Picnic ho ajin ako a’ba giilya. [Bring one friend with you in the picnic.].

a’ba sii

come together. Usage: Ngiinyi a’ba sii. [We (two of us) come together.].

a’ba siido

1) come together. 2) coming together.

a’ba siima

1) do not come together. 2) not coming together.

a’da diima

Usage: Tajo: Ngo biilyo school a’ma to. [I did not come to school yesterday.]

Tado: No a’da diima. [I swear you came to school.]

a’dii ma

would not come. Usage: Chobin siilo a’dii ma. [Chobin would not come today]

a’dii make

would not come (with more certainty). Usage: Mo a’dii make. [He would not come].


1) have/has come. Usage: Tacho a’do ha?[Has Tacho come? 2) is/are coming. Usage: Tacho insi a’do. [Tacho is coming there.]

a’do koda

if (someone) come. Usage: Mo a’do koda ngo lu’ko kendo.[If he comes then I would tell.].

a’do ran

still coming.


to come frequently.

a’ga do

come frequently.

a’ga ma

do not come frequently.

a’ga mane

did not come frequently.

a’ga mato

did not come frequently (use by first person).

a’ga ne

came frequently.

a’ga to

come frequently.


1) come earlier than other. Usage: Ngo mo mi a’go yato. [I came earlier than him]. 2) turn to come. Usage: A’go biila a’to. [Come in turn.]. 3) task of coming.


compete to reach or come. Usage: Ngiinyi a’go-a’lo a’ka siisa. [Let us (two of us) see who come earlier].

a’go biine

came earlier. Usage: Ropo, Omo nyi a’go-a’lo a’ka siito la Omo a’go biine.[Ropo and Omo compete to see who come earlier and Omo came earlier than Ropo.].

a’go japa

come earliest. Usage: Tamo a’go japa a’ne. [Tamo came earliest.].

a’go ma

do not come earlier.

a’go mane

did not come earlier. Usage: No ngiimi a’go mane. [You did not come earlier (than me)].

a’go to

come earlier.

a’go yabii ne

came earlier than other. Usage: Richo, Taka mi a’go yabii ne. [Richo came earlier than Taka.].

a’go yama

not come earlier than other.

a’go yo

do not come earlier than someone. Usage: Tamo, Pussang mi a’pyo kiine to. No a’go yo. [Tamo let Pussang come first. Don't come earlier than him].


come to somewhere frequently (almost arousing doubt or annoyance to others). Usage: No so a’ha siidii tabyo ha.


not easy to come. Usage: Nunu lembo si jebi adin doto la ano a’ha-a’kha do. [Your road is muddy and not easy to come.].


finish coming (all those who have to come have come and no one is left). Usage: Hime atan class ho a’ja doku ha? [Have all the children come into the class?].


cost or benefit of coming. Usage: Meeting ho a’jo nyikin make amin loka. [It's no use coming to the meeting].


try to come, come and see

a’ka do

trying to come

a’ka ma

do not try to come or never come. Usage: Tamo ngiika ude ho a’ka ma. [Tamo never come to my house.].

a’ka mane

did not try to come.

Usage: Onya : Ude ho mi a’ka masu ne ha?[Did someone come to my house?]

Oka : Ma. Mi kone tere a’ka mane.[No. No one came.].

a’ka diima

would not try come or would not come.

a’ka ne

tried to come or came and left.

a’ka sa

let us try to come or enter, let us come/go and see. Usage: inka dukan ho a’ka sa.[Lets enter into that shop. Or Let’s go and see that shop.]

a’ka to

try to come, come over. Usage: So oye a’ka to.[Come over here once.].


to come (take long time).

a’kan do

coming (since long time ago).


came (use in direct speech with certainty) syn. a’ne, a’ne ke


1. to show how to come. Usage: mo mi oye a’kin to. [Show him once how to come.]. 2. will/shall come

a’kin do

1. showing how to come 2. shall come Usage: Arda Ziro ho Governor a’kin do.[Tomorrow Governor will come to Ziro].

a’kin kopa

because of showing someone how to come.

a’ko da

if come

a’ko dano

What if (someone) come. Usage: Ngo a’ko dano?[What if I come?].

a’ko hopa

due to coming (of someone).


1. has/have (already)come 2. to come from or through wrong direction

a’ku diima

would not come/return.

a’ku ma

have not come(return), have not come(return) yet. Syn: a’ku maran.

a’ku mane ran

had not come/ return yet.

a’ku maran

have not come(return) yet. Usage: Aba more in’nii (ho kii) a’ku maran. [Father has not return from jungle yet.].



a’la do

coming (in process). Usage: Kano insi a’la do. [Kano is coming there.].

a’la doran

still coming (on the way).


can / able to come. Usage: Narun giibo la balu ho a’laa kendo ha? [Can you come into garden by moving across the fence?].

a’laa do

can come, able to come, can come. Syn: a’laa kendo.

a’laa ma

not able to come, cannot come. Usage: Ngiikii arda ngoya in’go ako do hopa school a’laa kenma. [I have to go somewhere tomorrow so I cannot come to school.].


1) have/has not come. 2) not coming.

a’ma ke

have/has not come

a’ma ne

did not come.

a’ma ran

has not come yet.

a’ma sa

let us not come.

a’ma saka

let us not come (request). Usage: Siilo school a’ma saka, teacher abuya hii a’kin make.[Let's not come to school today, most teachers will not come to school.].

a’min loka

don't come (as coming is useless). Usage: Siilo school a’min loka. [Don't come to school today (it's useless).].


came (second and third person).

a’ne ku

have / has come/ returned.

a’ne kudo

would come.


one who come.


state of coming.


to come (into or in front or out in open).

a’po giima

avoid to come out (in front or in open).

a’po ma

not come out (in front or in open).

a’po to

come (in front or in open).


easy to come, feel free to come or comfortabe to come.

a’pyo do

is easy to come.

a’pyo ma

is not easy to come.

a’pyo ne

was easy to come.


to come first.

a’pyoh do

1) has come first. 2) is coming first.

a’pyoh la do

coming first (continue to).

a’pyoh laado

can come first

a’pyoh ma

has/have not come first.

a’pyoh ne

came first/ earlier.

a’pyoh sa

let us come first/earlier.

a’pyoh to

come first / earlier.

a’pyoh yado

coming first or earlier than someone.

a’pyoh yama

1) do not come first or earlier than someone. 2) not coming first or earlier than someone.

a’pyoh yo

do not come first.


let us come.

a’sa ka

let us come(request).


1) had come. 2) to complete coming.

a’tii do

coming (of something) has completed.

a’tii ke

had come [affirmative].

a’tii tii

coming (of something) had completed.


1) came. Usage: Ngo meeting ho a’to. [I came to the meeting]. 2) come. Usage: So a’to. [Come here].

a’to tiika

do come. Usage: So a’to tiika.[Do come over here.].


to pay visit.

a’yi-a’cha do

(use to) pay visit.

a’yi-a’cha du

(use to) pay visit.

a’yi-a’cha ne

did (used to) pay visit.

a’yi-a’cha to

do pay visit.


don’t come.


v. to eat.


eat together or eat with other.

dii’ba sii

eat together.

dii’ba siido

eating together.

dii’ba siima

not eating together.

dii’da diima

Usage: No dii’da diima. [I swear you eat.].

dii’dii ma

would not eat.


is/are eating.

dii’do koda

if (someone) eat.

dii’do ran

still eating.


voracious eater/ eat voraciously.

dii’ga do

eat voraciously.

dii’ga ma

don't eat voraciously.

dii’ga mane

did not eat voraciosly.

dii’ga ma’to

did not (use to) eat voraciously or was not a voracious eater. Usage: Ngo apin dii’ga mato. [I did not use to eat meal voraciously. Or, I was not a voracious eater.].

dii’ga ne

did eat voraciously.

dii’ga to

do eat voraciously or be a voracious eater.


1) ones turn to eat or ones share (to eat). 2) food, thing to eat.


eat earlier, eat first

dii’goh-dii lo

compete to finish the food.


n. food, thing to eat.

dii’goh biine

ate earlier (compare to someone).

dii’goh japa

eat earliest (compare to others).


not good to eat.


finish food (by eating).


reward for or benefit of eating.

dii’jjo (also dii’joh)

keep eating as one move.


to have a taste or try to eat.

dii’ka do

having a taste or eating something (as a test or trial).

diila lala

after eating


do not eat

dii’ma ne

did not eat

dii’ma niin

non edible, things not eaten

dii’ma saniin

something which are not to be eaten

dii’ma ran

not eat yet

dii’ma ranpa

before eating

dii’ma sa

let’s not eat

dii’ma to

did not eat


n. eater, one who eat.


1. what one eat, 2. state of eating


good to eat, tasty


to eat first.

dii’pyoh do

eating first.

dii’pyoh la do

is eating first (continue).

dii’pyoh ma

not eating first.

dii’pyoh ne

ate first.

dii’pyoh sa

let's eat first or earlier than some other.

dii’pyoh to

eat first.

dii’pyoh ya

one who eat earlier.

dii’pyoh yado

eating earlier

dii’pyoh yama

not eating earlier

dii’pyoh yo

don't eat first.


1) n. edible, substance that can be used as food. 2) adj. suitable for use as food.

dii’sii niin (also dii’sa niin)

1) substance that is being eaten, food, eatables. 2) substance that can be use as food.


go and eat, eat out.


1) had eaten. 2) to complete eating.


to do (work, cook, construct, etc ).



mii’do koda

if someone does something. Usage: No siisi home work mii’do koda, siilyin da Indian Idol ka’laa kendo.[If you do home work now, you can watch Indian Idol in the evening.].


1) do (also work, construct etc as indicated by the object). Usage: Aba, ama nyi aji mii’du.[Father and mother work in the field.]. 2) doing. Usage: Ngo siisi home work mii’du.[I'm doing home work now.].


n. work, task.


do earlier.


1. to show how to do 2. shall do, ought to do

mii’kin do

1. showing how to do. 2. shall do, ought to do

mii’kin kopa

because of showing someone how to do.


has/have not done. Usage: Ama apin mii’ma ran. [Mother has not cooked the meal yet.].

mii’ma kopa

due to or because of not doing

mii’ma ran

has not done yet.

mii’ma sa

let us not do.


did. Usage: Mo simi mii’ne. [He did it.].

mii’ne do

would do


doer, one who does.


1. what one has done. 2. state of doing something


let us do.


1) task or work one has to do, thing one has to do. 2) what one ought to do.

mii’sii niin (also miisa niin)

thing one ought to do.


1) had done. 2) to complete.

mii’tii ku

had already done.

mii’tii sa

let's complete.

mii’tii to

v. complete.

mii’tii yo

don't complete.


1) do. Usage: No simi mii’to. [You do it.]. 2) did. Usage: Ngo simi mii’to. [I did it.].

mii’to ku

have done. Usage: Ngo ngiika home work mi siisi da mii’to ku.[I have done my home work just now.].


don't do Usage: Apin mii’yo, piijo da ngunu restaurant ho dii’te sa. [Don't cook meal, later on we shall eat out at a restaurant].


PB said...

This post is most welcome ! U're addressing here what is maybe the toughest part of Tanii language... Keep on informing us.

GT said...

thanks for your comment.
I've revised my earlier posts...especially the scheme of writing words...earlier post are however retained for comparison and reference under OLD VERSION label

PB said...

Yes, I noticed that. Our respective spellings are getting closer this way. From my side I may also choose to break some words into two separate words, esp. those containing "la" or "le", or to make a systematic break after -do in longer verbal forms.